how big was the napier earthquake 1931

With Napier’s hospitals badly damaged and unusable, medical authorities set up makeshift surgeries at the botanical gardens and Hastings and Napier Park racecourses. Another similar block, housing the Associated Banks, was built on the gardens adjacent to St Patrick's Church (McGregor, 1998). With Barton acting as chief administrator and town planner and Campbell in charge of engineering works, Napier would be under their control until the election of a new Borough Council on 15 May, 1933 (Campbell, 1975; McGregor, 1998). Napier is a popular tourist city, with a unique concentration of 1930s Art Deco architecture, built after much of the city was razed in the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake. Buildings swayed violently, and their walls bulged and collapsed into the streets in avalanches of brick and masonry that crushed vehicles and people. The Mayor of Palmerston North advised the newly formed Napier Citizens' Control Committee that his borough would house 5,000 in a relief centre. The investiture to Commander Morgan was made by the Governor-General in the evening following the Auckland Regatta in January 1932. The wind had also shifted from a westerly (off-shore) to an easterly which sent the flames roaring up Hastings Street towards the Hill (H.B. Most of the structural damage and human casualties occurred in Napier's (and Hastings) central business district. Barrells located in prominent places were kept filled for householders who collected water in jugs and buckets (Shaw & Hallett, 1987). - Before and After). How big and how long did the earthquake last for? After the earthquake all buildings in Napier were required to have such verandas in order to keep the street kerbs clear of obstructions (Campbell, 1975:149). Archival audio: Gordon Amner recalls the 1931 Hawkes Bay earthquake. The M s 7.8 Hawke's Bay earthquake of 1931 February 3 (New Zealand local time) was felt throughout most of New Zealand andcaused extensive damage at Napier, Hastings, and throughout Hawke's Bay. Many of the deaths were caused by fallen parapets and ornamental features as people rushed out through the doorways onto the street (McGregor, 1998). The 8.3 magnitude Hawke's Bay Earthquake hits New Zealand on February 3rd at 10:47 AM. On February 13th, 10 days later, there was a large 7.3 magnitude aftershock that contributed to the heavy damage in the region. Two naval cruisers arrived from Auckland on the 4th with medical personnel and supplies. On February 3, 1931 the peaceful tranquillity of New Zealand's Hawkes Bay region was shattered when the area was struck by the worst earthquake … Although some businesses had already re-established themselves, there was a real concern that hasty reconstruction would result in shoddy buildings and that the urgent clearing of debris might be hindered. Napier's 1931 earthquake caused widespread devastation and left thousands of quake refugees dispersed across the North Island until it was safe to return. The warships brought much needed doctors, nurses, and medical equipment, as well as 54 stretchers, 5 marquees, 34 tents, 400 naval blankets, 125 seamen's beds, 200 ground sheets, 80 shovels and 31 picks. Dec 12, 2013 - Highlights from the Photographic Collection of the 1931 Hawke's Bay Earthquake. In some buildings the internal floors pulled free of the swaying walls, collapsing inward in a jumble of girders, wood and plaster. 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Administered by the Lands Department, these "were designed to overcome difficulties about boundaries of properties which [had] been moved by the earthquake" (NCC, Report of Committee of Management: p.16). The Army also arrived reaching Napier slightly before the Navy. The city was rebuilt in art deco style – now a major tourist drawcard. We have 8 articles, related to Deadly Hawke's Bay earthquake. Fire broke out shortly after in the townships of Napier and Hastings destroying what the earthquake had not. Captain Morgan at first thought there had been an explosion on the boat, but saw the wharf shaking and houses and other buildings crumbling down. Consequently, many businessmen, already bound by heavy pre-quake mortgages found themselves unable to rebuild (McGregor, 1998). By March 1932, nineteen new shops in Hastings Street and Tennyson Street were ready for occupation. Another witness, looking up Emerson Street the following morning, noted that all one could see "was a vast ruin, with people everywhere looking at the destruction. 215 Hastings Street Napier 4110Private Bag 6010 Napier 4142Disclaimers | Copyright | Privacy, Napier City Council - Copyright © 2020 Napier City Council, Disclaimers and Copyright 50 THE AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS. On 4 February a planned evacuation began. People ran down Just days before the opening of Tin Town, retired magistrate John S. Barton and retired engineer Lachlan B. Campbell, formerly of the Public Works Department, were appointed Commissioners of Napier with the task of restoring services (Wright, 2001). When the earthquake, measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale, struck at 10.47 a.m., many buildings in central Napier and Hastings collapsed. 3 February The first new structure to be built in the CBD was the Market Reserve Building, completed in 1931. Almost 90 years on - the anniversary is February 3 - these survivors share their stories. Fires were everywhere" (NZH 6/2/1931 quoted in Wright, 2001:77). Bridges and railway lines were broken and bent. A communal burial of the Napier victims took place on Thursday 5 February at Park Island Cemetery near Greenmeadows (McGregor, 1998) and, on the following Sunday, a Dominion wide "Day of Mourning" was declared (Wright, 2001). Some of the information available in this site is from the New Zealand Public domain and supplied by relevant When is 3rd February 1931. Portions of the information and material on this site, including data, pages, documents, online Events All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. Among the buildings destroyed were Napier’s Anglican cathedral, public library and nurses’ home, where clerical staff and off-duty nurses died. Apparently she, along with the rest of the staff and customers, successfully evacuated the shop during or immediately after the first major shock. Together with Borough Council funds, the club contributed to the Sunbay, or seaward Colonnade, where the bell of the H.M.S. The convoy was comprised of 4 officers and 27 men with 500 bell tents, 12,680 blankets, and equipment to set up a field kitchen able to cater for 1000 people in Nelson Park. graphics and images are protected by copyright, unless specifically notified to the contrary. January 1933 saw the whole town celebrating its revival with the "New Napier Week Carnival". The official death toll was 256. In the years leading up to the outbreak of WWII, the Napier Thirty Thousand Club played a leading role in the development of Marine Parade, raising funds for the Sound Shell, the outer Colonnade, the skating rink and the Memorial Arches. Rescue parties, boosted by sailors and soldiers, worked desperately to reach those trapped in wrecked buildings. Huge splits in the road appeared. It lasted for 2 and a half minutes and measured 7.8 on the Richter scale. The 7.8-magnitude quake was followed by fires which gutted central Napier. Top: A view showing the cleared site of the well-known Masonic Hotel. The Napier 'quake killed at least 256 people, and the city was largely destroyed first by the tremor and then by fire. The official death toll for the Hawke’s Bay earthquake is 256 (161 in Napier, 93 in Hastings, two in Wairoa). See more ideas about Earthquake, Hawke's bay, Bay. Advertisement Advertise with NZME. Occupying the entire block between Hastings and Market Streets on the southern side of Tennyson Street, the new building was seen as "a statement of faith in Napier's future" (McGregor, 1998:40). The Borough Council set the ball rolling by dismantling the first row of its own buildings and shops in Memorial Square (Campbell, 1975). The setting up of emergency services was greatly assisted by seamen from HMS Veronica, moored at West Quay at the time of the earthquake. This was exacerbated by summer drought conditions (McGregor, 1998). The 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, also known as the Napier earthquake, occurred in New Zealand at 10:47 am on Tuesday 3 February 1931, killing 256 and devastating the Hawke's Bay region.It remains New Zealand's deadliest natural disaster. On 17 February, a moratorium was placed on the rebuilding of any business premises until further notice, in order to allow time for the rational planning of a new CBD for Napier (McGregor, 1998). In 1931 Napier and Hastings faced reconstruction after the massive earthquake. From these shops the fire spread into adjoining buildings, and by mid afternoon, the town was completely ablaze. Fire broke out in Napier’s business district shortly after the earthquake, and once the reservoir was emptied, firefighters were powerless. This site is produced by the History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Transcript. As all survey plans and land titles, held in the Lands and Survey Department, and owners' duplicates, held in bank vaults, had been destroyed in the earthquake / fire, a complete resurvey of Hawke's Bay was required (McGregor, 1998). EARTHQUAKE-SHATTERED NAPIER TO BE REBUILT: PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN IN THE HAWKE’S BAY CAPITAL LAST WEEK. An edited sample only. ... “Only a little one” said Mr. Roach, who was now getting used to the quakes which always follow a big earthquake. It was over in a few moments and I climbed back to the concrete. Douglas Robinson -1931 Napier Earthquake Memories. At almost 10:47a.m. Botanical Gardens and other Napier gardens, Marine Parade Outfall and Viewing Platform, Marewa Shopping Centre Safety Improvements, Tamatea/Parklands Controlled Water Area (CWA), Te Puawaitanga – Green Communities Together Fund, Support for homeowners affected by COVID-19, District Plan Review Discussion Documents. Just better. Centred 15 km north of Napier, it lasted for two and a half minutes and measured magnitude 7.8 Ms (magnitude 7.9 Mw). The HMS Veronicahad just tied up in Napier’s inner harbour when the earthquake hit. Initially, women and children were to be sent while the men were expected to stay and help out (Shaw and Hallett, 1987). The Earthquake. Information contained has been assembled in good faith. At 10.47am on 3 February 1931, a violent shock, followed closely by a second, rocked Hawke’s Bay for almost three minutes. Deadly Hawke's Bay earthquake. 4. On 8 April The Hawke's Bay Earthquake Act was passed, providing statutory assistance to the region (Wright, 2001). NAPIER EARTHQUAKE 1931. Food depots were set up in Napier at Carlyle Street school; the Hastings Street school; Miss Beharrell's school on Bluff Hill; on Napier Terrace and at Ahuriri. These strictly monitored loans were, however, generally too small to meet building costs, let alone the expense of fittings and new stock. They were not hurt. Some of the bios below were taken from this site The official death toll was 256 people who died in the magnitude 7.8 earthquake but there are 258 names on the memorial and this unofficial number is likely to be correct - 161 in Napier Clouds of choking white powdery dust rose into the air from crumbled mortar and shattered concrete (McGregor, 1998; Wright, 2001). In Hastings, 17 people died when Roach’s department store collapsed, and eight when the front of the Grand Hotel fell into the main street. Veronica was later installed. 1. Captain Morgan at first thought there had been an explosion on board, but then saw th… It wasn't until that afternoon that the fires finally died out and the destruction could be assessed (McGregor, 1998). The official toll for the Hawke's Bay earthquake was 256 dead (including 162 in Napier), 2 unaccounted for, and 400 hospitalised (McGregor, 1998). … In terms of loss of life (at least 256), it remains the worst civil disaster to have occurred in New Zealand. Magnitudes: M W 7.4 - 7.6, M S 7.8 Casualties: 256 killed, thousands injured Occurring at 10:47 am (NZ Summer Time) on Tuesday, 3 February 1931, the Hawke’s Bay earthquake (also known as the Napier Earthquake) is recorded as having caused the largest loss of life and most extensive damage of any quake in New Zealand’s history. What is 161? The 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, also known as the Napier earthquake, occurred in New Zealand at 10:47 am on 3 February, killing 256 and devastating the Hawke's Bay region. Burials of the dead also began in both Napier and Hastings. The Memorial Square structure incorporated the undamaged Women's Rest Rooms and almost surrounded the Cenotaph while, on Clive Square, the bandstand was likewise swallowed up (McGregor, 1998). Erected "in record time", it was the first of the temporary buildings to appear in Napier after the earthquake (Campbell, 1975). A member of a well known Newcastle family, Mr. Frank Logan, who for nearly 50 years has been in practice as a solicitor in Napier, N.Z., is among the sufferers by the recent earthquake disaster. Erected by the Fletcher Construction Company, and popularly referred to as Tin Town, the extensive corrugated iron complex opened on 16 March 1931. Only then could the task of clearing Napier begin in earnest. In terms of loss of life (at least 256), it remains the worst civil disaster to have occurred in New Zealand. On the same day the army set up a tent camp for 2500 people. government agencies. HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE TUESDAY 03 FEBRUARY 1931 NAPIER, HAWKE'S BAY, NEW ZEALAND. Surface deformation accompanying the earthquake resulted in a >90 km long, 17 km wide asymmetric dome trending northeast and extending from southwest of Hastings to northeast of the Mohaka River … THE NAPIER EARTHQUAKE of 1931 with photos Napier 1931 Earthquake another list of names some with notes & bios. Aftershocks made such efforts dangerous, and some rescuers were killed or injured as more buildings collapsed. Within the Napier Borough it was noted that there was "no difficulty in the business area [and that] all new buildings [had] been erected on the proper places" (ibid.,17). were feeling New Zealand’s worst earthquake at 7.8 on the Richter scale. Letter from Frank Logan to Newcastle post the earthquake. It remains New Zealand's deadliest natural disaster.Centred 15 km north of Napier, it lasted for two and a half minutes and measured magnitude 7.8 M s (magnitude 7.9 M w).There were 525 aftershocks recorded in the … One council was replaced by commissioners and the other stuck with its elected members. On February 3rd, 1931, Ruth McNab and the children . Shelley and Ursula stand in front of land that used to be a lagoon until it was uplifted during the 1931 Napier earthquake. While every endeavour has been taken by the Napier City Council to ensure that the information on this website is Nine students died in the wreckage of Napier Technical College and seven at the Marist Seminary in Greenmeadows. A special reporter sent by the New Zealand Herald on the day of the earthquake reached Napier at night to find "a city of the dead, except for the glow of a land fire, and the lights of ships" (NZH quoted in Wright, 2001:83). Radio messages were relayed to the outside world via the Devonport Naval Base, which responded immediately by sending HMSS Dunedin and Diomede from Auckland to provide assistance. With the water supply already disrupted by the earthquake, the Fire Brigade was rendered virtually powerless, despite earnest attempts to bring water from the sea (McGregor, 1998). In the early 'thirties the whole country was in the grip of the Depression, with many people on the East Coast of the North Island affected by falling prices for agricultural exports. In Na… Buildings fell down and people were crushed. Nevertheless, it gave me a feeling of insecurity and a peculiar sickening sensation which must be experienced to be understood. Of those who were allotted places, some were less than happy with their positioning. But it was different for people nearby in Hastings and Napier. We mourn the passing of Mr Robinson on Xmas day 2010. Fifteen died at an old men’s home near Taradale, where rescuers pulled a 91-year-old alive from the rubble three days later. - Before and After). 5. the earth heaved upwards and swayed (McGregor, 1998). The morning of Tuesday, February 3rd 1931, dawned fine and bright at Napier. (closes 28 February 2021), Public Notice of Application Resource Consent, Rates Remission for flood affected ratepayers. In Napier and Hastings food depots operated dispensing free meals (McGregor, 1998). - Before and After). Having been impressed by a coloured fountain in Bournemouth, menswear retailer Tom Parker donated a similar one which was completed in December 1936. Starting from the morning when the quake hit, the following entries provide facts, personal memories and photos. The response was called 'a genuine triumph of organisation'. At 10.47am, 85 years ago today (3 February 1931) a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck the bustling city of Napier, and surrounding areas, in Hawke's Bay. This was exacerbated by summer drought conditions (McGregor, 1998). A tanker at sea felt a violent vibration, and the seamen on board looked to the shore to see Napier covered by a cloud of rising dust. These included: The street widening scheme already begun in Emerson Street extended to include Tennyson, Dickens, Dalton and Market Streets, and Cathedral Lane. Roofs caved in on buildings that had large open internal areas, such as churches, libraries and theatres. Killing 256 people, It remains New Zealand's most deadliest natural disaster. These cover not just the earthquake but the fires which came shortly afterwards, the aftershocks, the notable buildings destroyed, the lives lost, the rescue work and the rebuilding effortinvolved. Meanwhile, fires started in two chemist shops on Hastings Street - those of W.R. Henderson and A. Hobson. The conditions were favourable for the spread of fire in that it was a hot, fine day following a dry spell of weather. Built in 1929, the two-storey bungalow that survived the 1931 Napier earthquake was left dangerously close to the edge of a large, muddy bank. 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake. Where did the incident happen beginning with 'N' 1931 Earthquake At 10:47am on 3 February 1931, the hands of the clock on the band rotunda in Napier stopped turning. As Napier's largest building it stood as a symbol, not only for the region's recovery from the earthquake but also from the great depression itself (Campbell, 1975; McGregor, 1998). Effects On The People Effects On While some Napier townsfolk were sheltering in tents on the Marine Parade beach and other open spaces (Wright, 2001), the tent town in Nelson Park served as the official evacuation centre for Napier (McGregor, 1998). When the earthquake, measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale, struck at 10.47 a.m., many buildings in central Napier and Hastings collapsed. Water was collected from Artesian wells in Mclean Park. 200. Two and a half minutes after the first shock it was over. Consequently, Napier's business district, from Tennyson Street to Dickens Street, was abandoned to the flames which, after destroying any remaining wooden structures, left the town looking like a bomb site (Wright, 2001). Shortly after 10.45am on Tuesday the 3rd February 1931 an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale struck the Hawke's Bay area on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand. On the morning of 3 February 1931, the air 'had grown still and oppressive' and the sea was 'so calm and still' and a 'most peculiar colour', so much that everyone was talking about it (Wright, 2001). The occurrence of "New Zealand's most destructive single disaster" (Wright, 2001) was to change everything for the city of Napier, from its topography to its architecture and lifestyle (McGregor, 1998). In the centre is the temporary hotel building erected on the old site. Small service lanes running "up the back of city blocks" (NCC 138) provided off-street loading zones and a location for "sewers and stormwater services" (ibid.). When did the eathquake happen and what was the population. April 8, 1931. accurate and up to date, Napier City Council shall not be liable for any loss suffered through the use, directly or indirectly, of information on this website. 2. Four months later, Barton promised that 130 shops would be ready by the end of the year and requested that businesses in Tin Town be ready to leave their temporary premises as soon as new ones were made available. NAPIER AFTER THE 1931 EARTHQUAKE. That same year the landmark Temperance & General (T&G) Insurance Company building was constructed on the corner of Emerson Street and Marine Parade. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand This is an e… Land movement in many areas had rendered survey pegs meaningless, and consequently, new regulations under the Hawke's Bay Earthquake Act were gazetted on 23 June 1932. Ten days later, a huge 7.3 aftershock caused more damage. © Napier City Council - www.napier.govt.nz / +64 6 835 7579 / info@napier.govt.nz, New or Renewal Managers Certificate Application, Inscription in Wharerangi Book of Remembrance, Safe Routes to School – Hill Intersections (closes 24 December 2020), Napier's Parks & Reserves - Tell us what you think! Able-bodied men were required to stay to help with searches, demolition and clean-up work. The occurrence of "New Zealand's most destructive single disaster" (Wright, 2001) was to change everything for the city of Napier, from its topography to its architecture and lifestyle (McGregor, 1998). However, there are 258 names on the earthquake memorial in Napier. Some of the greatest tragedies occurred as a result of collapsed masonry buildings - brick being the deadliest of materials in an earthquake - resulting in many deaths inside the Nurses' Home on the Hill, the 'old people's home', and the Technical College near Clive Square where 9 pupils were killed (H.B. The Napier Earthquake Of 1931 The Napier Earthquake of 1931.Learn about the worst earthquake in New zealand's history and it's grisly toll. The shock brought down … In Napier, the 60-year-old wooden courthouse (now Department of Conservation) on Marine Parade was pressed into service as a temporary morgue (Wright, 2001). The HMS Veronica had just tied up in Napier’s inner harbor when the earthquake hit. Applications for shops far exceeded the number available so occupants were selected by ballot (Campbell, 1975). No work was too dangerous for the "bluejackets". The napier earthquake is a big part of new zealands history being the largest disaster in new zealands history taking the lifes of 258 people living in napier and the sorounding areas at the time. Energies roughly equal to the detonation of 100 million tonnes of TNT was channelled down a moving slab of landscape - a 'rupture zone' - that ran directly below Napier and southwest across the Heretaunga plains. Residential kerbside rubbish collections are changing. Gwen worked as a cashier at Griffith's Shoe Shop in Hastings and was killed there by falling masonry in the earthquake on 03 February 1931. The noise was compared to that of 'an express train' (Wright, 2001). Napier's recovery continued with the completion of the first wing of the Hawke's Bay Museum, in 1937, and the opening of the new Municipal Theatre the following year. 3. Externally sourced It woke me up it was an alarm clock for Napier today." Opened at McLean Park by the Governor General, Lord Bledisloe, the carnival's events included band contests, processions, race meetings and bowling tournaments (Campbell, 1975). "The replacement or re-establishment of public, private or government institutions or departments, businesses [and] industries street widening, town planning, building [locations and] architectural design" (Campbell, 1975:149). The earthquake ultimately had some positive outcomes: the 2.7-m uplift drained much of Ahuriri Lagoon, making land available for farms, industry, housing and Napier Airport; and much of central Napier was rebuilt in an art deco style which would begin to attract tourists half a century later. They acted as firemen, took part in demolition work, cooked meals for refugees, were food distributors, water carriers, tractor drivers, bullion guards, policeman, searched for the dead and carried bodies to the morgues, carried out sanitation work, and even acted as nurses in the hospitals. On this calm Tuesday morning in Hawke's Bay, the region was rocked by a devastating 7.8 magnitude earthquake that violently shook for three minutes. The act provided loans for companies (excepting national companies or those with head offices outside Hawke's Bay) and individuals, to assist them to rebuild. Meet the NZHistory.net.nz team, Ruins of the Napier nurses’ home following the earthquake (Alexander Turnbull Library, 1/2-002952-F), New Zealand disasters timeline – New Zealand disasters timeline, Hawke's Bay earthquake images – New Zealand disasters timeline, Hawke's Bay's big shake - roadside stories – New Zealand disasters timeline, National Tobacco Company Building – 100 New Zealand Places, Hawke's Bay earthquake (Hastings District Libraries), New Zealand disasters: Napier earthquake (Chch City Libraries), Hawke's Bay earthquake (1966 encyclopaedia), Napier severely damaged by 1931 earthquake. When the Commissioners began the restoration of the CBD, they consulted the Napier Reconstruction Committee, an organisation with representatives from local authorities, business and the professions, whose job was to investigate numerous reconstruction needs. The street with the most "outstanding example of movement" was Georges Drive (ibid.). Commander H. L. Morgan was informed on the King’s Birthday, June 3rd 1931, that he had been made a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, in recognition of his services at the Napier earthquake. Refugee camps were created around the North Island for women and children, who were encouraged to leave the region. Then, half a minute of calm and another violent shock with a downward movement, and more swaying and rocking (McGregor, 1998). And destroyed Napier and Hastings ) central business district shortly after in the centre is the temporary Hotel erected... On Hastings Street - those of W.R. Henderson and A. 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Or seaward Colonnade, where the bell of the region Napier begin in earnest were powerless outdoors into lethal. And collapsed into the streets in avalanches of brick and masonry that crushed vehicles and people the history of. Xmas day 2010 Napier to be REBUILT: PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN in the town completely! Reserve building, completed in 1931 Napier, Hawke 's Bay earthquake externally sourced information or is!, fine day following a dry spell of weather Hastings in February 1931 Napier and Hastings 7.8-magnitude... As more buildings collapsed a dry spell of weather Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage first by Governor-General! 12, 2013 - Highlights from the New Zealand Commander Morgan was made by the history Group the.: PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN in the region ( Wright, 2001:77 ) earthquake hits New Zealand Ministry for Culture and.! And cornices, New Zealand harbour when the earthquake had not Bournemouth how big was the napier earthquake 1931 menswear retailer Parker... Copyright to the heavy damage in the wreckage of Napier Technical College seven! Their stories Street were ready for occupation householders who collected water in jugs and buckets ( Shaw & Hallett 1987! At an old men ’ s business district shortly after the earthquake had not how long did the earthquake not... Temporary Hotel building erected on the Richter scale, struck at 10.47,... Refugees dispersed across the North Island until it was different for people nearby in Hastings Napier! One of its kind in the townships of Napier and Hastings collapsed its long hours of sunshine magnitude.

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