mitigating risk in the 2004 denali fault earthquake

Note how the blue dots scattered at the top of the map track roughly northeast-trending parallel lines. The earthquake caused an offset of nearly 6 meters (20 feet) where it crossed … The 2002 Denali EQ, the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline and EQ Hazard Mitigation On Nov 3, 2002 a large magnitude 7.9 earthquake happened along the Denali fault, about 160km south of Fairbanks/Alaska. The Denali Fault earthquake sequence resulted in about 340 km of surface rupture (Haeussler and others, 2004) (figs. Alaska not only experiences the most earthquakes in the United States, but also the strongest. Even several years after the earthquake, average speeds remain several times higher than the pre-earthquake rates at many sites. The interaction of the Pacific and North American plates across southern Alaska creates a variety of sources for seismic activity. Earthquake forecasting and prediction is an active topic of geological research. The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. It was the main fault along which the 2002 Denali earthquake occurred, which was measured as a magnitude of 7.9 M w. During the afternoon of November 3, 2002, the water in Seattle's Lake Union suddenly began sloshing hard enough to knock houseboats off their moorings. Large earthquakes like this one cause significant displacements of the surface far away from the fault. Many nations in the Indian Ocean were not aware of “tsunami” Absence of a Tsunami Early Warning Systems The Denali Fault extends across the heart of the Alaska Range, passing just north of the town of Cantwell, through the Muldrow Glacier at the base of the north face of Denali, and continues to the west. Following the Denali Fault earthquake, adjacent fault segments have been stressed, increasing the likelihood of additional earthquakes on those segments. A real earthquake on the Hayward Fault could occur at any time and with a different pattern of shaking. The Kantishna cluster is a group of small, shallow earthquakes—not far from Wonder Lake—at the southwestern end of a shear zone. For better understanding of all the possibilities of earthquake risk reduction, it is important to classify them in terms of the role that each one of them could play. Selected focal depths for the ... 2004) and so were modified for the effects of regolith response. A T eleseismic Study of the 2002 Denali Fault, Alaska, Earthquake and Implications for Rapid Strong-Motion Estimation Chen Ji,a) Don V .Helmber ger,a) and Da vid J.W ald, b) M.EERI Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, ear thquak e are de-rived rapidl y from global teleseismic w avefor m data. The earthquake caused an offset of nearly 6 meters (20 feet) where it crossed the Richardson Highway and Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The November 3, 2002 Denali fault earthquake, which is the largest inland event ever recorded in central Alaska, occurred along an arcuate segment of the right‐lateral strike‐slip Denali fault. Determining your risk with regard to earthquakes, or more precisely shaking from earthquakes, isn't as simple as finding the nearest fault. The National Hazard Maps use all available data to estimate the chances of shaking (of different strengths and One of them was the Denali 7.9 earthquake, the largest earth- These quakes are associated with the northern extension of the subduction edge of the Pacific plate and its dive beneath the North American crust. The Denali Fault, the fastest moving and most active fault in Interior Alaska, cuts through the heart of the Alaska Range and Denali National Park and Preserve. Earthquakes can cause impacts far from their source. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Postseismic deformation is the general term used for the movements that follow and are triggered by earthquakes. Hayes through the Alaska Range, and the ovals are the epicenters of two earthquakes, the magnitude 6.7 earthquake of Oct. 23, 2002, and the Denali Fault earthquake of Nov. 3, 2002. Denali fault earthquake to evaluate structural damage in that event. Within the park, he sets up an instrument to record data at each survey point for a few days each year, and uses these year-to-year changes in position to study the movements of the Earth. The Nenana Mountain and Denali Fault earthquakes generated a vigorous aftershock sequence. The Denali Fault has a lower seismic risk, with a maximum Postseismic deformation results from different physical processes, including continued slip on the fault plane or its deeper extension and viscous flow in the Earth’s mantle. In phases, three models High precision Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying can now measure positions of survey points with a precision of a few millimeters. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada. al., 1994]. This seismically active area in the heart of the park typically experiences a M 2 earthquake every few days. Some of the achievements of the NEHRP over the last 25 years, such as the survival of the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake, are based on earth science and earthquake engineering research. The basic structure of methods for estimating hazard was developed by engineers needing quantitative answers despite the wide range of uncertainties ( 1 ). Geologist Wes Wallace of the University of Alaska s Geophysical Institute took this photo of the Denali Fault before the earthquake. Mitigating this damage is thus of paramount importance in reducing the overall risk posed by earthquakes. All the atmospheric parameters [CWV, SLHF, relative humidity (RH) and total ozone column (TOC)] show significant changes prior and after the Denali fault earthquake. The largest surface offsets of 8.8 meters (29 feet) were observed farther to the east. April 9 2004 Rev F Page 1 Oil and Water System Performance – Denali M 7.9 Earthquake of November 3, 2002 By John Eidinger1 and Mark Yashinsky2 1.0 Introduction The November 3, 2002, magnitude 7.9 Denali, Alaska earthquake struck through rural Alaska. California’s Earthquake Risk Shifting Focus: A Look at California’s Earthquake Risk. Such knowledge is needed to predict ground motions in future earthquakes so that earthquake-resistant structures can be designed. Effect of the Denali Fault Rupture on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline ; Response of the Above-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline to the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake ; Assessment of the Below-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline Following the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake The longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault (1857, 1906), the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey (1939) and the Denali Fault in Alaska (2002), are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, and those along normal faults are even shorter. Geologic observations from the Denali fault could prove invaluable to mitigating earthquake risk and saving lives in Alaska and elsewhere. 94, no. Using the program FPFIT [Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985], Ratchkovski et al. The evaluation of the seismic risk is considered essential to define strategic urban and emergency planning management actions and should be based on the analysis of the buildings, the exposed population and their emergency interaction. The criteria consisted of location, type, and amount of fault displacement at the Denali and other fault crossings. 6, pp. The pattern of shallow, intermediate, and deep events in south-central Alaska highlights the shallow angle of the subduction. of the Denali fault earthquake, with clockwise rotation ranging from about 14 in the western part of the rupture to as much as 38 in the eastern part. Areas of active faulting like central Alaska continuously undergo slow deformation between earthquakes, and experience sudden shifts when earthquakes happen. Ongoing tectonic processes are constantly shifting and changing the land. Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. Abstract An earthquake can be described as natural phenomena that cause shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface. During this reporting period, the NEHRP celebrated its 25th anniversary. Measuring the deformation of the earth related to this tectonic activity helps scientists understand the 2002 earthquake and the tectonic forces that caused it. We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. The Nenana Mountain and Denali Fault earthquakes generated a vigorous aftershock sequence. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. The AEIC located over 1,000 aftershocks of the M 6.7 event prior to the M 7.9 mainshock and over 35,000 aftershocks through the end of 2004. 3 November 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, a large-magnitude (M=7.9) shallow strike-slip event, generated large-amplitude surface waves observable by GPS to a distance of thousands of kilometers [Larson et al, 2003]. Great earthquakes (those with M greater than 8.0) typically occur along the Pacific-North American plate boundary far south of the park. Effect of the Denali Fault Rupture on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline ; Response of the Above-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline to the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake ; Assessment of the Below-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline Following the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake Measurements Freymueller has made across the Alaska Range before the 2002 earthquake show movement across the Denali Fault of 6-8 millimeters per year (1/4 to 1/3 inch per year). Following the Mw 7.9 earthquake on the Denali and Totschunda faults on 3 November 2002, we conducted a reconnaissance of the region to investigate geotechnical and surface rupture features of the event. Earthquake Risk in Alaska. The Totschunda fault splays off of the Denali fault to the southeast, and may be part of a developing connection between the plate-bounding Queen Charlotte-Fairweather and western Denali faults [Richter and Matson, 1971]. Once a fault has been identified, the next step is to determine how it behaves. According to Ford, “The Denali Fault earthquake was the ‘big one’ for Alaska.” The cracks in the Earth’s surface along parts of the fault were up to 6.7 meters (22 feet) wide, which would have caused considerable damage to a more heavily populated area, such as California. All measurement sites, including those in the park, initially showed rapid horizontal motions, which have slowed down over time. It illuminates earthquake mechanics and hazards of large strike-slip faults. Earthquakes cause lots of damage to property and even result in deaths. G. Carver, G. Plafker, M. Metz et al., “Surface rupture on the Denali Fault interpreted from tree damage during the 1912 Delta river Mw 7.2–7.4 earthquake: implications for the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake slip distribution,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. After large earthquakes, the pattern and rate of strain around the fault is often quite different immediately after the earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake time period. The fault's rate of displacement varies from 1 mm to 35 mm per year. On November 3, 2002 a devastating earthquake rattled Alaska. [2004] determined focal mechanisms for earthquakes before and after the Denali fault earthquake, then estimated The 2002 Denali, Alaska Earthquake. 19 Cascadia: Paradigm Shift (1984-87) 1976 1990 1996 PGA (%g) with 2% PE in 50 years Larger earthquakes tend to shake longer and harder and therefore cause more damage to structures1. Overall, motions were about 20 times faster over the first 1-2 years after the earthquake, compared to the pre-earthquake rates. The 2002 Denali Fault earthquake caused changes in the observed motions all across central Alaska. Analysts also scan waveforms to find earthquakes that were not detected by the automated system. The epicenters (point on the earth surface where the quakes originate) of each of these large earthquakes was about 50 km (30 miles) east of the park, on the Denali fault. The pipeline crosses the Denali fault some 90 miles south of Fairbanks. It was evident, during damage assessment evaluations after the Denali fault event, that the residents of the smaller at-risk communities had little understanding of the earthquake hazard, had not implemented measures to mitigate damage, and were unprepared to respond to the consequences of damage. The November 2002 earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 and caused a surface rupture 325 km (~200 miles) long, mostly on the central Denali Fault (see red line on map below). The Pacific plate is moving northwest relative to Alaska, causing many earthquakes along the interface. However, the duration of shaking associated with a magnitude 9.2 mega-thrust earthquake would be longer, and this is also factored into the seismic evaluations. Although the fault there shifted about 14 feet, the pipeline did not break, averting a major economic and environmental disaster. The earthquake began about 80 km (50 miles) east of the Denali Visitor Center, and ruptured eastward along the Denali Fault, and was followed by thousands of aftershocks. The Denali fault earthquake (Mw = 7.9) of November 3, 2002 was the largest strike–slip earthquake (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2003) that occurred in North America in almost 150 years. Lasted 10 minutes (longest lasting earthquake in history) 229,866 dead, which includes 42,883 missing. But once in awhile, we experience larger earthquakes too; in 1868, Kaʻū experienced a quake estimated at M 7.9 that knocked down every wall and building in the district, and took the lives of 81 … Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. Although people tend to view the Earth as static and stable between earthquakes, every point is actually moving slowly as Earth’s tectonic plates move around. Real time ground motion data from ~400 seismic stations across the state are used to identify and characterize each earthquake in Alaska. As the effects of the 2002 earthquake continue to dissipate, continued measurements of GPS sites in and around the park will provide an invaluable record of how the crust and mantle in central Alaska behave. Pacific Nankai h Metropolitan 3. BACKGROUNDER • ASSESSING AND MANAGING SEISMIC RISK. earthquake recorded). Between these Place an order for a custom essay, research paper on this or related subject. As crustal blocks slide horizontally past one another, strike slip faults occur; when blocks are pushed together, one block is thrust up or down along the fault line. Seismicity in interior Alaska north of the Denali fault is dominated by shallow events (see blue dots on map above). By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies.. It is unknown whether some of this stress is being relieved by the cluster of frequent shallow earthquakes in the Kantishna area. The 7.9 Denali fault earthquake in 2002 revealed an unknown fault now named the Susitna Glacier fault. Although the biggest earthquakes occur where plates rub together, some faults only become apparent when an earthquake occurs. Each seismic station transmits data to Fairbanks, where seismologists continuously monitor ground motion. However, the duration of shaking associated with a magnitude 9.2 mega-thrust earthquake would be longer, and this is also factored into the seismic evaluations. Before allowing the installation of scientific equipment in a national park (via research permit), staff from the park conduct an impact study and provide a period for public comment. Mitigating earthquake risk in Australia M.R. At many of the sites inside the park, the motions after the 2002 earthquake are now slowing down to nearly the preearthquake rates. It was the largest inland earthquake to hit North America in the last 150 years. Hazard estimates have important implications for society, providing a basis for building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessments, and public policies to mitigate earthquake risk. The section of the fault in the park is just as active as the section to the east, and at some point in the future it will also break in a large earthquake. BACKGROUNDER • ASSESSING AND MANAGING SEISMIC RISK. Large earthquakes often cause considerable damage to infrastructure and structures. Mitigation The section of the Denali fault cutting across the park has not experienced a major earthquake within the last ~100 years. View at: Google Scholar Alaska is the most geologically active part of the United States. The southern edge of our state is an active tectonic plate boundary where the Pacific plate subducts (i.e., dives beneath) the North American plate along the great Alaska-Aleutian Megathrust. Studies of the fault at various locations have yielded a wide range of slip rates, but the best estimates generally converge on a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr. and minor earthquakes on the subduction zone in a cluster pattern. Denali National Park is located very close to the Denali fault. Geoscientists are able to identify particular areas of risk and, if there is sufficient information, to make probabilistic forecasts about the likelihood of earthquakes happening in a specified area over a specified period. November 2002, the powerful magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake struck south-central Alaska, rupturing the ground beneath the zigzagging Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline. For example, the Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of 2011 occurred on a subduction zone fault and it was over magnitude 9, making it one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded. These lines are shear zones where smaller crustal blocks are shifting between major faults. Largest aftershocks of the Nenana Mountain earthquake were the two magnitude 3.8 events. underground fault. One example of a major fault is the Denali fault, which cuts across the state in the Alaska Range (labelled on map on reverse). One example of a major fault is the Denali fault, which cuts across the state in the Alaska Range (labelled on map on reverse). The destruction caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and … Continue reading "Mitigation of Earthquakes" The cause? This was never more evident than in the fall of 2002, when two large earthquakes occurred. Earthquake - Earthquake - Methods of reducing earthquake hazards: Considerable work has been done in seismology to explain the characteristics of the recorded ground motions in earthquakes. During the afternoon of November 3, 2002, the water in Seattle’s Lake Union suddenly began sloshing hard enough to knock houseboats off their moorings. Motion on the Denali Fault and nearby related fault structures is responsible for many of the large earthquakes in central Alaska, and for the high elevation (20,310 feet, 6190 meters) of Denali (previously known as Mt. This presents a rare opportunity to catch a major earthquake in the act. S58–S71, 2004. Each of these seismic stations is instrumented with a broadband seismometer to detect ground motion, a data digitizer to record displacement, a radio to transmit the data, and solar panels to help power the equipment. ... slightly larger than the magnitude 9.0 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake that devastated northern Sumatra in December 2004 and generated a tsunami that killed more than 280,000 people. Major earthquakes (those with a magnitude range of 7.0-7.9) occur where a significant amount of stress has accumulated prior to being released—along a plate boundary or along major faults. Shortly after midday on November 3, 2002, a magnitude 7.9 earthquake ruptured the Denali Fault in the rugged Alaska Range, about 90 miles south of Fairbanks. ATTACHMENT SEMINAR ON DENALI FAULT EARTHQUAKE Lloyd Cluff and Norm Abrahamson Pacific Gas and Electric Company Date: January 23, 2004 Place: One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 In the months that followed, roughly 25,000 aftershocks were located on the Denali and Totshunda faults, revealing a surface rupture that was 325 km (200 miles) long. Automatic locations are available within five minutes on AEIC’s webpage. 1–3), which began with thrust faulting on a 48-km length of the previously unknown Susitna Glacier Thrust Fault. Investigating the seismic response of regular and irregular urban structures can provide useful information for input to any preparedness plan. The epicenter was located west of Nenana Mountain on the Denali fault… South-Central Alaska highlights the shallow angle of the Pacific plate is moving northwest relative Alaska. 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Pattern of shaking papers on the Hayward fault could cause the pipeline did not,... An active topic of geological research are shifting between major faults stress is.! Trace map, eastern Alaska and elsewhere man-made embankments, and experience sudden shifts when earthquakes happen across... And backfills the chances of experiencing shaking from earthquakes, or more precisely shaking from,. Strike-Slip faults by the cluster of frequent shallow earthquakes in the United States 2002 Denali fault earthquakes generated vigorous...

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